§ Homology, the big picture
First, there was nothing. Then, we decided we want homology. We start out by baby-stepping with
simplicial homology. We rapidly abandon this in favour of singular homology, since it's easier to define
notions of chain morphisms with singular homology. We want to know when spaces have the same homology/chain complex.
A reasonable idea is to prove that when the map between spaces is homotopic to identity, the chain complex
is identical. During the course of the proof, we feel the need for a notion of "chain equivalence", and thus we
we are led to define the notion of chain homotopy, and
more generally, the homotopy category of chain complexes.
Next, we want the long exact sequence of homology connecting a space to its
quotient. To get here, we first consider relative homology, connecting a space
to a subspace. Next, we are led to build the
machinery of excision which tells us that relative homlogy is unchanged on
removing a subspace. Finally, we craft "good pairs", which are spaces for whom
the relative homology sequence will be equivalent to the quotient long exact sequence.
Excision lets us prove that relative homology is equal to quotient homology for good pairs.
Once we have excision, we use it to show that show that (1) simplicial and singular
homology agree, and (2) construct the Mayer Viteoris sequence (the Kunneth of homology).
§ Chain equivalence
Two chains are chain equivalent if there's a prism operator betwen them
:) More seriously,
§ Relative homology
Build sequence . Snake lemma gives us
long exact sequence of relative homology.
§ Good pair
is a good pair if (1) is closed in (contains all its boundaries), (2) there is an open nbhd of
() such that deformation retracts onto .
For example, is a good pair, because the subspace (annulus)
deformation retracts onto the boundary . The subspace is open since
it is the complement of a closed set, the point. More generally,
given an attaching map to attach a into a
space , if we build , then is a good pair,
since we have an open which is minus the origin of the disk that conatins . That is,
set . contains , and deformation retracts onto , since we can "deform" the
ball minus the origin back into the original space . This, cellular attachments create a "chain of good spaces".
Also see this answer on HEP versus good pair
§ good pair + Excision => relative equals quotient homology
Let be a good pair. Consider the projection map which kills ,
the map as a map of good pairs.
(Note that is also a good pair). We claim this induces isomorphisms