- Lyndon + Christoffel = digitally convex
- Combinatorics on Words: Christoffel Words and Repetitions in Words

- If you have a line with rational slope $p/q$ and you want to draw a"discretized line" by connecting integer points in ZxZ, you can describe thisdiscretized line as starting from $(0, 0)$, making moves $x$ (move up 1 unitalong $x$-axis), $y$ (move up 1 unit along $y$-axis), finally reaching the point $(p, q)$. For example, to reach the point $(2, 3)$, you can make the moves $[x, x, x, y, y]$.

- A christoffel word is a word $w \in \{x, y \}^\star$ such that it hugs a line ofrational slope $p/q$ as close as possible. Formally, there are no integerpoints between the line with slope $p/q$ starting from the origin, and thediscretized line as described by $w$. An example picture:

- It turns out that all primitive christoffel words are Lyndon words. I'm not100% sure what primitive is, but the take-away is that these primitivechristoffel words represent discrete lines that are
*good*approximationsof lines.

- Now, we are given a discrete sequence of adjacent line segments goingupwards, where the line segments are described by $x, y$ moves. We want tocheck if the discrete curve defined by them is well-approximating a convexpolygon.

- We compute the lyndon factorization of the word. This splits theoriginal line segment into a series of line segments, where eachsuccessive line segment has lower slope than the previous (since thelyndon decomposition splits words into non-decreasing lex order).

- We can then check that each word in the lyndon decomposition is a Christoffelword. If it is, then your sequence of moves describes a "good discreteconvex hull", since as described above, a christoffel word "hugs the line"well.

`p/q = 4/7`

using the lower approximation the idea
is that we keep taking `4`

steps along `x`

, and every time we "exceed" `7`

steps
along `x`

, we take a step along `y`

.
This is the same as:
- working in
`Z/(4+7)Z`

, starting from`0`

, writing down multiples of`4`

till we cycle back to`0`

- marking an "increase" in a step with an
`x`

, and a "decrease" in a stepwith`y`

.

`k*p`

steps where `k*p >= q`

, we want
to increment `y`

. So, at first glance, we may believe we should consider
`Z/qZ`

. However, this is misguided. Examples to enlighten:
- Consider
`x=1, y=0`

. We should use`Z/1Z = { 0 }`

: that is, we must keepmoving along`0 -x -> 0 -x-> 0 -x-> ...`

. This is unlike what happens if we choose`Z/0Z`

(which is not a well-defined idea). - Consider
`x=1,y=1`

. We should use`Z/2Z`

, so we keep going`0 -x-> 1 -y-> 0 -> ...`

which will cause is to flip`x -> y -> x -> y -> ...`

.

`x`

and see where that takes us.
In the `Z/1Z`

case, we realise that we can keep taking `x`

s. In the
`Z/2Z`

case, we realise we need to flip between `x`

and `x`

.
Let's try to show this formally, where `k`

is the smallest number
such that `kp >= q`

. We'll also have concrete examples where
`p=2, q=7`

. For the example, `k=4`

since `kp = 4*2 = 8 > 7`

.
If we work in `Z/yZ = Z/7Z`

, we will get the numbers:
```
Z: 0, p, 2p, ... (k-1)p, [q] kp
Z/qZ: 0, p, 2p, ... (k-1)p, [q] (kp % q)
Z/7z: 0, 2, 4, ... 6, [7] (8 % 7 = 1)
```

But notice that we are inserting `x`

```
Z: 0 -x-> p -x-> 2p, ... (k-1)p -y-> (k+1)p
Z/qZ: 0 -x-> p -x-> 2p, ... (k-1)p -y-> ((k+1)p % y)
Z/7z: 0 -x-> 2 -x-> 4, ... 6 -y-> (8 % 7 = 1)
^ ^
x since [0 < 2] y since [6 > 1]
```

which gives us the moves:
```
Z/7Z: 0 -x-> 2 -x-> 4 -x-> 6 -y-> 8 % 7 = 1
```

We only get `3`

occurences of `x`

, after which on the next accumulation of `p`

,
becomes an `8`

which wraps around to a `1`

. This is the age-old tension that exists
between `k`

points, there are `k-1`

gaps. In our
case, we have `4`

points `[0, 2, 4, 6]`

, but this leaves us room for only
three gaps for three`x`

moves, while in reality we need `4`

.
We remedy this situation by giving ourselves space enough for `x`

, by changing from `Z/qZ`

to `Z/(p+q)Z`

. We should look at this as creating space for another gap.
```
Z: 0, p, 2p, ... (k-1)p, [q] kp, [q+p ], (k+1)p
Z/(p+q)Z: 0, p, 2p, ... (k-1)p, [q] kp, [q+p ], (k+1)p % (p+q)
Z/9z: 0, 2, 4, ... 6, [7] 8, [7+2=9], (10 % 9=1)
```

which gives us the moves:
```
Z: 0 -x-> p -x-> ... (k-1)p -x-> kp -y-> (k+1)p
Z/(p+q)Z: 0 -x-> p -x-> ... (k-1)p -x-> kp -y-> (k+1)p % (p+q)
Z/9Z: 0 -x-> 2 -x-> ... 6 -x-> 8 -y-> ( 10 % 9 = 1)
^ ^
x since [0 < 2] y since [8 > 1]
```

That is, we are able to get `k`

occurences `x`

between `0, p, ..,kp`

which
has `(k+1)`

points. Concretely, we have:
```
Z/9Z: 0 -x-> 2 -x-> 4 -x-> 6 -x-> 8 -y-> 1
```

where we have 4 occurences of `x`

in between after which we have an occurence
of `y`

, which is what we want when `x=2, y = 7`

. We need to reach at least
`q=7`

before we have exceeded our denominator and need to make a move
along `y`

.